RECONSTRUCTING Q

Entry into Jerusalem (Matthew 21:1-11||Mark 11:1-11||Luke 19:28-44)

76% reflected in both Matthew and Luke

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Color Coding: Matthew-Mark Agreements | Mark-Luke Agreements | Matthew-Luke Agreements | Triple Agreement
Formatting: Word Is Different | Word Differs from Both Parallels | Morphology Is Different | Morphology Differs from Both Parallels
Gray Background: This is not where this portion is found in this gospel.

MatthewMarkLukeNotes
1Καὶ ὅτε ἤγγισαν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα καὶ ἦλθον εἰς Βηθφαγὴ εἰς τὸ ὄρος τῶν ἐλαιῶν, τότε Ἰησοῦς ἀπέστειλεν δύο μαθητὰς 2λέγων αὐτοῖς• 1Καὶ ὅτε ἐγγίζουσιν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα εἰς Βηθφαγὴ καὶ Βηθανίαν πρὸς τὸ ὄρος τῶν ἐλαιῶν, ἀποστέλλει δύο τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ 2καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς• 28Καὶ εἰπὼν ταῦτα ἐπορεύετο ἔμπροσθεν ἀναβαίνων εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα. 29Καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς ἤγγισεν εἰς Βηθφαγὴ καὶ Βηθανίαν πρὸς τὸ ὄρος τὸ καλούμενον Ἐλαιῶν, ἀπέστειλεν δύο τῶν μαθητῶν 30λέγων• Matthew-Luke agreements are incidental.
2πορεύεσθε εἰς τὴν κώμην τὴν κατέναντι ὑμῶν, καὶ εὐθέως εὑρήσετε ὄνον δεδεμένην καὶ πῶλον μετʼ αὐτῆς• λύσαντες ἀγάγετέ μοι. 2ὑπάγετε εἰς τὴν κώμην τὴν κατέναντι ὑμῶν, καὶ εὐθὺς εἰσπορευόμενοι εἰς αὐτὴν εὑρήσετε πῶλον δεδεμένον ἐφʼ ὃν οὐδεὶς οὔπω ἀνθρώπων ἐκάθισεν• λύσατε αὐτὸν καὶ φέρετε. 30ὑπάγετε εἰς τὴν κατέναντι κώμην, ἐν εἰσπορευόμενοι εὑρήσετε πῶλον δεδεμένον, ἐφʼ ὃν οὐδεὶς πώποτε ἀνθρώπων ἐκάθισεν, καὶ λύσαντες αὐτὸν ἀγάγετε. Mark is clearly the only source Matthew and Luke have for this.
3καὶ ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ τι, ἐρεῖτε ὅτι κύριος αὐτῶν χρείαν ἔχει• εὐθὺς δὲ ἀποστελεῖ αὐτούς. 3καὶ ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ• τί ποιεῖτε τοῦτο ; εἴπατε• κύριος αὐτοῦ χρείαν ἔχει, καὶ εὐθὺς αὐτὸν ἀποστέλλει πάλιν ὧδε. 31καὶ ἐάν τις ὑμᾶς ἐρωτᾷ• διὰ τί λύετε ; οὕτως ἐρεῖτε• ὅτι κύριος αὐτοῦ χρείαν ἔχει. Matthew-Luke agreement is incidental
4τοῦτο δὲ γέγονεν ἵνα πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τοῦ προφήτου λέγοντος• Clearly Matthean redaction.
5εἴπατε τῇ θυγατρὶ Σιών• ἰδοὺ βασιλεύς σου ἔρχεταί σοι πραῢς καὶ ἐπιβεβηκὼς ἐπὶ ὄνον καὶ ἐπὶ πῶλον υἱὸν ὑποζυγίου. Matthean redaction.
6πορευθέντες δὲ οἱ μαθηταὶ καὶ ποιήσαντες καθὼς συνέταξεν αὐτοῖς Ἰησοῦς 4καὶ ἀπῆλθον καὶ εὗρον πῶλον δεδεμένον πρὸς θύραν ἔξω ἐπὶ τοῦ ἀμφόδου 32ἀπελθόντες δὲ οἱ ἀπεσταλμένοι εὗρον καθὼς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς. These minor agreements are incidental. Matthew gets the last four words from Mark 11:6 below.
4καὶ λύουσιν αὐτόν. 5καί τινες τῶν ἐκεῖ ἑστηκότων ἔλεγον αὐτοῖς• 33λυόντων δὲ αὐτῶν τὸν πῶλον εἶπαν οἱ κύριοι αὐτοῦ πρὸς αὐτούς•
5τί ποιεῖτε λύοντες τὸν πῶλον ; 33τί λύετε τὸν πῶλον ;
6οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτοῖς καθὼς εἶπεν Ἰησοῦς, καὶ ἀφῆκαν αὐτούς. 34οἱ δὲ εἶπαν• ὅτι κύριος αὐτοῦ χρείαν ἔχει.
7ἤγαγον τὴν ὄνον καὶ τὸν πῶλον καὶ ἐπέθηκαν ἐπʼ αὐτῶν τὰ ἱμάτια, καὶ ἐπεκάθισεν ἐπάνω αὐτῶν. 7καὶ φέρουσιν τὸν πῶλον πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ ἐπιβάλλουσιν αὐτῷ τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτῶν, καὶ ἐκάθισεν ἐπʼ αὐτόν. 35καὶ ἤγαγον αὐτὸν πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ ἐπιρίψαντες αὐτῶν τὰ ἱμάτια ἐπὶ τὸν πῶλον ἐπεβίβασαν τὸν Ἰησοῦν.
8 δὲ πλεῖστος ὄχλος ἔστρωσαν ἑαυτῶν τὰ ἱμάτια ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ, ἄλλοι δὲ ἔκοπτον κλάδους ἀπὸ τῶν δένδρων καὶ ἐστρώννυον ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ. 8καὶ πολλοὶ τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτῶν ἔστρωσαν εἰς τὴν ὁδόν, ἄλλοι δὲ στιβάδας κόψαντες ἐκ τῶν ἀγρῶν. 36πορευομένου δὲ αὐτοῦ ὑπεστρώννυον τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτῶν ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ.
9οἱ δὲ ὄχλοι οἱ προάγοντες αὐτὸν καὶ οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες ἔκραζον λέγοντες• 9καὶ οἱ προάγοντες καὶ οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες ἔκραζον• 37ἐγγίζοντος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἤδη πρὸς τῇ καταβάσει τοῦ ὄρους τῶν ἐλαιῶν ἤρξαντο ἅπαν τὸ πλῆθος τῶν μαθητῶν χαίροντες αἰνεῖν τὸν θεὸν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ περὶ πασῶν ὧν εἶδον δυνάμεων, 38λέγοντες• Luke has been following Mark very closely up to this point. It is likely that there was an entry narrative in Q since this story is common to other traditions as well. These words would actually work well as the introduction of that narrative. Schόrmann has this in Q.

At the same time, nothing here is particularly unlukan. There are verbal links with Q, but all of them seem to be expressions that are also favorites of Luke.
9ὡσαννὰ τῷ υἱῷ Δαυίδ• εὐλογημένος ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι κυρίου• ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις. 9ὡσαννά• εὐλογημένος ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι κυρίου• 10εὐλογημένη ἐρχομένη βασιλεία τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Δαυίδ• ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις. 38εὐλογημένος ἐρχόμενος, βασιλεὺς ἐν ὀνόματι κυρίου• ἐν οὐρανῷ εἰρήνη καὶ δόξα ἐν ὑψίστοις. Matthew may be deriving τῷ υἱῷ Δαυίδ from Mark's τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Δαυίδ, but notably the Gospel according to the Hebrews reads exactly "Hosanna to the Son of David" (Jerome, Epist. 19, Dam. ad Hieron, but see Epist. 20). Luke may be trying to explain ὁ ἐρχόμενος with ὁ βασιλεὺς, but if so he (unawares?) creates a double chiasm here and also introduces an element that is known in the Johannine tradition. The second chiasm looks like Luke 2:14 and is thought to be redactional, but it may be that Luke (or his infancy narrative source) draws Luke 2:14 from here. I am inclined to see Luke's version as the Q version of this saying. It is noteworthy that the Hebrew Gospel has osianna barrama here and that when Jerome explains this in Epistle 20 he discusses the birth of Jesus and peace in heaven, which we have in the Lukan version here.
15ἰδόντες δὲ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς τὰ θαυμάσια ἐποίησεν καὶ τοὺς παῖδας τοὺς κράζοντας ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ καὶ λέγοντας• ὡσαννὰ τῷ υἱῷ Δαυίδ, ἠγανάκτησαν 16καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ•
39καί τινες τῶν Φαρισαίων ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν• εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν is Lukan, but the καί beginning is unlukan, suggesting that Luke has a source here (Jeremias, Sprache, 281). The dialogue here is typical of what we would find in Q.
16ἀκούεις τί οὗτοι λέγουσιν ;
39διδάσκαλε, ἐπιτίμησον τοῖς μαθηταῖς σου. The vocative διδάσκαλε is a feature of Q, but it is also a feature of Mark.
16 δὲ Ἰησοῦς λέγει αὐτοῖς•
40καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν• Jeremias, 281, argues that this is not redactional.
16ναί. οὐδέποτε ἀνέγνωτε ὅτι ἐκ στόματος νηπίων καὶ θηλαζόντων κατηρτίσω αἶνον ;
40λέγω ὑμῖν, ἐὰν οὗτοι σιωπήσουσιν, οἱ λίθοι κράξουσιν. Reminiscent of Q 3:8.
41Καὶ ὡς ἤγγισεν ἰδὼν τὴν πόλιν ἔκλαυσεν ἐπʼ αὐτὴν 42λέγων ὅτι κλαίω occurs more frequently in Q than in all of the non-Q gospel material combined. Here, as elsewhere only in Luke 23:28, which is likely from Q, it occurs with ἐπί + acc. Jesus weeping over his message reminds us of Elijah (2 Kgs 8:11-12; Huddleston, "What Would Elijah Do?" JTI 5: 273). This also reminds us of Q 13:34-35.
42εἰ ἔγνως ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ταύτῃ καὶ σὺ τὰ πρὸς εἰρήνην• νῦν δὲ ἐκρύβη ἀπὸ ὀφθαλμῶν σου. 43ὅτι ἥξουσιν ἡμέραι ἐπὶ σὲ καὶ παρεμβαλοῦσιν οἱ ἐχθροί σου χάρακά σοι καὶ περικυκλώσουσίν σε καὶ συνέξουσίν σε πάντοθεν, 44καὶ ἐδαφιοῦσίν σε καὶ τὰ τέκνα σου ἐν σοί, * καὶ οὐκ ἀφήσουσιν λίθον ἐπὶ λίθον ἐν σοί, ἀνθʼ ὧν οὐκ ἔγνως τὸν καιρὸν τῆς ἐπισκοπῆς σου. τὰ πρὸς εἰρήνην is unlukan (Jeremias, 281) and is found also in Luke 14:32, which I have shown is from Q. λίθον ἐπὶ λίθον: see Mark 13:2. This is written neither Mark's way nor Luke's way (Jeremias, 282), suggesting a source. If this is from Q this will have implications for the Sitz im Leben and date of Q. Jeremias highlights other Lukan and unlukan features here.
10Καὶ εἰσελθόντος αὐτοῦ εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα ἐσείσθη πᾶσα πόλις λέγουσα• I am not sure why Matthew would add this to Mark.
10τίς ἐστιν οὗτος ;
11οἱ δὲ ὄχλοι ἔλεγον•
11οὗτός ἐστιν προφήτης Ἰησοῦς ἀπὸ Ναζαρὲθ τῆς Γαλιλαίας. "The prophet" is a common way of referring to Jesus in Q, but it occurs in other places as well. There is not enough reason to attribute this material to Q.
11Καὶ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ περιβλεψάμενος πάντα, ὀψίας ἤδη οὔσης τῆς ὥρας, ἐξῆλθεν εἰς Βηθανίαν μετὰ τῶν δώδεκα.

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