RECONSTRUCTING Q

Parable of the Tenants (Matthew 21:33-46||Mark 12:1-12||Luke 20:9-19)

92% reflected in both Matthew and Luke

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Color Coding: Matthew-Mark Agreements | Mark-Luke Agreements | Matthew-Luke Agreements | Triple Agreement
Formatting: Word Is Different | Word Differs from Both Parallels | Morphology Is Different | Morphology Differs from Both Parallels
Gray Background: This is not where this portion is found in this gospel.

MatthewMarkLukeNotes
33Ἄλλην παραβολὴν ἀκούσατε. 1Καὶ ἤρξατο αὐτοῖς ἐν παραβολαῖς λαλεῖν 9Ἤρξατο δὲ πρὸς τὸν λαὸν λέγειν τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην I am divided on this passage. If there is a Q parallel it probably occurred elsewhere in the gospel, and Matthew and Luke have here given us Mark's version, though both may have expanded that version with the same Q quote below.

The deuteronomistic interpretation of Jesus' death is as clear here as anywhere in the Gospels (Meadors, Jesus the Messianic Herald of Salvation, 305). It is thus characteristic of Q, and we find Matthew-Luke agreements against Mark here. On parallels between Luke and Thomas in this passage, see Gathercole, "Luke in the Gospel of Thomas." For arguments for a Hebrew Vorlage, see "Critical Notes on the VTS," in Jesus' Last Week.
33ἄνθρωπος ἦν οἰκοδεσπότης ὅστις ἐφύτευσεν ἀμπελῶνα καὶ φραγμὸν αὐτῷ περιέθηκεν καὶ ὤρυξεν ἐν αὐτῷ ληνὸν καὶ ᾠκοδόμησεν πύργον καὶ ἐξέδετο αὐτὸν γεωργοῖς καὶ ἀπεδήμησεν. 1ἀμπελῶνα ἄνθρωπος ἐφύτευσεν καὶ περιέθηκεν φραγμὸν καὶ ὤρυξεν ὑπολήνιον καὶ ᾠκοδόμησεν πύργον καὶ ἐξέδετο αὐτὸν γεωργοῖς καὶ ἀπεδήμησεν. 9ἄνθρωπός [τις] ἐφύτευσεν ἀμπελῶνα καὶ ἐξέδετο αὐτὸν γεωργοῖς καὶ ἀπεδήμησεν χρόνους ἱκανούς. οἰκοδεσπότης occurs frequently in Q parables, and there is no reason for Matthew to add this word unless he knew it from another source. Matthew and Luke also agree against Mark in word order.
34ὅτε δὲ ἤγγισεν καιρὸς τῶν καρπῶν, ἀπέστειλεν τοὺς δούλους αὐτοῦ πρὸς τοὺς γεωργοὺς λαβεῖν τοὺς καρποὺς αὐτοῦ. 2καὶ ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς τοὺς γεωργοὺς τῷ καιρῷ δοῦλον ἵνα παρὰ τῶν γεωργῶν λάβῃ ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος 10καὶ καιρῷ ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς τοὺς γεωργοὺς δοῦλον ἵνα ἀπὸ τοῦ καρποῦ τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος δώσουσιν αὐτῷ Perhaps Luke's δώσουσιν comes from Q since Matthew is following Mark???
35καὶ λαβόντες οἱ γεωργοὶ τοὺς δούλους αὐτοῦ ὃν μὲν ἔδειραν, ὃν δὲ ἀπέκτειναν, ὃν δὲ ἐλιθοβόλησαν. 36πάλιν ἀπέστειλεν ἄλλους δούλους πλείονας τῶν πρώτων, καὶ ἐποίησαν αὐτοῖς ὡσαύτως. 3καὶ λαβόντες αὐτὸν ἔδειραν καὶ ἀπέστειλαν κενόν. 4καὶ πάλιν ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἄλλον δοῦλον κἀκεῖνον ἐκεφαλίωσαν καὶ ἠτίμασαν. 5καὶ ἄλλον ἀπέστειλεν κἀκεῖνον ἀπέκτειναν, καὶ πολλοὺς ἄλλους, οὓς μὲν δέροντες, οὓς δὲ ἀποκτέννοντες. 10οἱ δὲ γεωργοὶ ἐξαπέστειλαν αὐτὸν δείραντες κενόν. 11καὶ προσέθετο ἕτερον πέμψαι δοῦλον οἱ δὲ κἀκεῖνον δείραντες καὶ ἀτιμάσαντες ἐξαπέστειλαν κενόν. 12καὶ προσέθετο τρίτον πέμψαι οἱ δὲ καὶ τοῦτον τραυματίσαντες ἐξέβαλον. Matthew and Luke agree against Mark in specifying the subject as οἱ γεωργοὶ.
37ὕστερον δὲ ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ λέγων ἐντραπήσονται τὸν υἱόν μου. 6ἔτι ἕνα εἶχεν υἱὸν ἀγαπητόν ἀπέστειλεν αὐτὸν ἔσχατον πρὸς αὐτοὺς λέγων ὅτι ἐντραπήσονται τὸν υἱόν μου. 13εἶπεν δὲ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος τί ποιήσω ; πέμψω τὸν υἱόν μου τὸν ἀγαπητόν ἴσως τοῦτον ἐντραπήσονται. The self-directed rhetorical question in Luke is a characteristic of Q (cf. Luke 12:17; 16:3).
38οἱ δὲ γεωργοὶ ἰδόντες τὸν υἱὸν εἶπον ἐν ἑαυτοῖς οὗτός ἐστιν κληρονόμος δεῦτε ἀποκτείνωμεν αὐτὸν καὶ σχῶμεν τὴν κληρονομίαν αὐτοῦ, 39καὶ λαβόντες αὐτὸν ἐξέβαλον ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος καὶ ἀπέκτειναν. 7ἐκεῖνοι δὲ οἱ γεωργοὶ πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς εἶπαν ὅτι οὗτός ἐστιν κληρονόμος δεῦτε ἀποκτείνωμεν αὐτόν, καὶ ἡμῶν ἔσται κληρονομία. 8καὶ λαβόντες ἀπέκτειναν αὐτὸν καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος. 14ἰδόντες δὲ αὐτὸν οἱ γεωργοὶ διελογίζοντο πρὸς ἀλλήλους λέγοντες οὗτός ἐστιν κληρονόμος ἀποκτείνωμεν αὐτόν, ἵνα ἡμῶν γένηται κληρονομία. 15καὶ ἐκβαλόντες αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος ἀπέκτειναν. Matthew and Luke agree in mentioning the "seeing" of the son, and they even have the same verb in the same form (ἰδόντες), when Mark has no such word.
40ὅταν οὖν ἔλθῃ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος, τί ποιήσει τοῖς γεωργοῖς ἐκείνοις ; 9τί [οὖν] ποιήσει κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος ; 15τί οὖν ποιήσει αὐτοῖς κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος ; It is hard to say whether Matthew is different because he is following Q or because he is rewriting Mark's text freely.
41λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Dialogue like this is a frequent feature of Q (see below for Luke doing the same thing).
41κακοὺς κακῶς ἀπολέσει αὐτοὺς καὶ τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἐκδώσεται ἄλλοις γεωργοῖς, οἵτινες ἀποδώσουσιν αὐτῷ τοὺς καρποὺς ἐν τοῖς καιροῖς αὐτῶν. 9ἐλεύσεται καὶ ἀπολέσει τοὺς γεωργοὺς καὶ δώσει τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἄλλοις. 16ἐλεύσεται καὶ ἀπολέσει τοὺς γεωργοὺς τούτους καὶ δώσει τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἄλλοις. Matthew's extra expression is reminiscent of Q 12:42.
16ἀκούσαντες δὲ εἶπαν Both Matthew and Luke turn Mark's monologue into a dialogue.
16μὴ γένοιτο.
42Λέγει αὐτοῖς Ἰησοῦς 17 δὲ ἐμβλέψας αὐτοῖς εἶπεν
42οὐδέποτε ἀνέγνωτε ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς λίθον ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες, οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας 10οὐδὲ τὴν γραφὴν ταύτην ἀνέγνωτε λίθον ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες, οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας 17τί οὖν ἐστιν τὸ γεγραμμένον τοῦτο λίθον ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες, οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας ; Psalm 118 is also used in Q 13:34-35 in a context related to the death and vindication of Jesus (Meadors, 306).
42παρὰ κυρίου ἐγένετο αὕτη καὶ ἔστιν θαυμαστὴ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν ; 11παρὰ κυρίου ἐγένετο αὕτη καὶ ἔστιν θαυμαστὴ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν ;
43διὰ τοῦτο λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἀρθήσεται ἀφʼ ὑμῶν βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ δοθήσεται ἔθνει ποιοῦντι τοὺς καρποὺς αὐτῆς. Matthew's use of "kingdom of God" is somewhat surprising, especially if this is his own addition. This may actually be copied from Q, though I suspect that the mention of "a nation" is Matthew's own redaction. The extra mention of fruit-bearing here would not be surprising for Q.
43[44καὶ πεσὼν ἐπὶ τὸν λίθον τοῦτον συνθλασθήσεται ἐφʼ ὃν δʼ ἂν πέσῃ λικμήσει αὐτόν.] 18πᾶς πεσὼν ἐπʼ ἐκεῖνον τὸν λίθον συνθλασθήσεται ἐφʼ ὃν δʼ ἂν πέσῃ, λικμήσει αὐτόν. This is likely from Q, though the text is uncertain.
45Καὶ ἀκούσαντες οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι τὰς παραβολὰς αὐτοῦ ἔγνωσαν ὅτι περὶ αὐτῶν λέγει 46καὶ ζητοῦντες αὐτὸν κρατῆσαι ἐφοβήθησαν τοὺς ὄχλους, 12Καὶ ἐζήτουν αὐτὸν κρατῆσαι, καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν τὸν ὄχλον, ἔγνωσαν γὰρ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὴν παραβολὴν εἶπεν. 19Καὶ ἐζήτησαν οἱ γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς ἐπιβαλεῖν ἐπʼ αὐτὸν τὰς χεῖρας ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ, καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν τὸν λαόν, ἔγνωσαν γὰρ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην.
46ἐπεὶ εἰς προφήτην αὐτὸν εἶχον. This may reflect the original ending in Q or it may just be a Matthean addition.
12καὶ ἀφέντες αὐτὸν ἀπῆλθον.

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