RECONSTRUCTING Q

Jesus' Arrest (Matthew 26:47-56||Mark 14:43-52||Luke 22:47-53)

54% reflected in both Matthew and Luke

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Color Coding: Matthew-Mark Agreements | Mark-Luke Agreements | Matthew-Luke Agreements | Triple Agreement
Formatting: Word Is Different | Word Differs from Both Parallels | Morphology Is Different | Morphology Differs from Both Parallels
Gray Background: This is not where this portion is found in this gospel.

MatthewMarkLukeNotes
47Καὶ ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος ἰδοὺ Ἰούδας εἷς τῶν δώδεκα ἦλθεν καὶ μετʼ αὐτοῦ ὄχλος πολὺς 43Καὶ εὐθὺς ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος παραγίνεται Ἰούδας εἷς τῶν δώδεκα καὶ μετʼ αὐτοῦ ὄχλος 47Ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος ἰδοὺ ὄχλος, καὶ λεγόμενος Ἰούδας εἷς τῶν δώδεκα προήρχετο αὐτοὺς It is likely that there was an arrest scene in Q. This would have followed right on the "two swords saying." ὁ λεγόμενος is somewhat unnecessary here, but it would be more necessary if it was the first mention of him in Q.
47μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων ἀπὸ τῶν ἀρχιερέων καὶ πρεσβυτέρων τοῦ λαοῦ. 43μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων παρὰ τῶν ἀρχιερέων καὶ τῶν γραμματέων καὶ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων.
48 δὲ παραδιδοὺς αὐτὸν ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς σημεῖον λέγων• 44δεδώκει δὲ παραδιδοὺς αὐτὸν σύσσημον αὐτοῖς λέγων•
48ὃν ἂν φιλήσω αὐτός ἐστιν, κρατήσατε αὐτόν. 44ὃν ἂν φιλήσω αὐτός ἐστιν, κρατήσατε αὐτὸν καὶ ἀπάγετε ἀσφαλῶς.
49καὶ εὐθέως προσελθὼν τῷ Ἰησοῦ εἶπεν• 45καὶ ἐλθὼν εὐθὺς προσελθὼν αὐτῷ λέγει• 47καὶ ἤγγισεν τῷ Ἰησοῦ Luke's version could be a condensed version of Mark, but I am inclined to think this is Q since something is needed here in Q.
49χαῖρε, ῥαββί, 45ῥαββί,
49καὶ κατεφίλησεν αὐτόν. 45καὶ κατεφίλησεν αὐτόν• 47φιλῆσαι αὐτόν. Again, Luke's wording may be how it was worded in Q.
50 δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ• 48Ἰησοῦς δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ• Matthew and Luke agree in having Jesus ask a rhetorical question (assuming the Matthean version is read as a question).
50ἑταῖρε, ἐφʼ πάρει. 48Ἰούδα, φιλήματι τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδίδως ; The word ἑταῖρος occurs only 3x, all in Matthew and all in potential Q passages.
50τότε προσελθόντες ἐπέβαλον τὰς χεῖρας ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ ἐκράτησαν αὐτόν. 46οἱ δὲ ἐπέβαλον τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῷ καὶ ἐκράτησαν αὐτόν.
49ἰδόντες δὲ οἱ περὶ αὐτὸν τὸ ἐσόμενον εἶπαν• There are redactional elements here (Jeremias, 295), but this somehow reflects Q.
49κύριε, εἰ πατάξομεν ἐν μαχαίρῃ ; A reference back to 22:36, 38, which we have argued is likely from Q. One can imagine why Matthew would have omitted it.
51Καὶ ἰδοὺ εἷς τῶν μετὰ Ἰησοῦ ἐκτείνας τὴν χεῖρα ἀπέσπασεν τὴν μάχαιραν αὐτοῦ καὶ πατάξας τὸν δοῦλον τοῦ ἀρχιερέως ἀφεῖλεν αὐτοῦ τὸ ὠτίον. 47εἷς δέ [τις] τῶν παρεστηκότων σπασάμενος τὴν μάχαιραν ἔπαισεν τὸν δοῦλον τοῦ ἀρχιερέως καὶ ἀφεῖλεν αὐτοῦ τὸ ὠτάριον. 50καὶ ἐπάταξεν εἷς τις ἐξ αὐτῶν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως τὸν δοῦλον καὶ ἀφεῖλεν τὸ οὖς αὐτοῦ τὸ δεξιόν. Perhaps the mention of the right ear is from Q, but Luke is so close to Mark that it is hard to tell what Q might have said. Marcion apparently had nothing here, but I would think the early references to swords in Q would suggest that Q had something here.
52τότε λέγει αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς• 51ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν• Matthew and Luke agree against Mark that Jesus spoke about this situation.
52ἀπόστρεψον τὴν μάχαιράν σου εἰς τὸν τόπον αὐτῆς• πάντες γὰρ οἱ λαβόντες μάχαιραν ἐν μαχαίρῃ ἀπολοῦνται. 53 δοκεῖς ὅτι οὐ δύναμαι παρακαλέσαι τὸν πατέρα μου, καὶ παραστήσει μοι ἄρτι πλείω δώδεκα λεγιῶνας ἀγγέλων ; 54πῶς οὖν πληρωθῶσιν αἱ γραφαὶ ὅτι οὕτως δεῖ γενέσθαι ; 51ἐᾶτε ἕως τούτου• Matthew may reflect Q here with Luke greatly condensing it. A number of the features of Matthew are Q features (double rhetorical question, etc.). The Lukan wording is redactional according to Jeremias, 295.

Franklin, "Passion Narrative," 34, suggests that Matt 26:54 may reflect a knowledge of Luke 22:37.
51καὶ ἁψάμενος τοῦ ὠτίου ἰάσατο αὐτόν. It is hard to tell if this was in Q or if Luke added this element. Franklin, "Passion Narrative," 34, apparently thinks the former: "Matthew, true to form, does not incorporate extra events into Mark’s narrative, but justifies the command to desist on the ground of ethics. He adds v. 52 which parallels the Lukan presentation of Jesus’ control whilst his additional reference to the fulfillment of Scripture in v. 54 might suggest a knowledge of Lk. 22.37." One would wish for a stronger argument than this before including this in Q, though.
55Ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ εἶπεν Ἰησοῦς τοῖς ὄχλοις• 48Καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς• 52Εἶπεν δὲ Ἰησοῦς πρὸς τοὺς παραγενομένους ἐπʼ αὐτὸν ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ στρατηγοὺς τοῦ ἱεροῦ καὶ πρεσβυτέρους•
55ὡς ἐπὶ λῃστὴν ἐξήλθατε μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων συλλαβεῖν με ; 48ὡς ἐπὶ λῃστὴν ἐξήλθατε μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων συλλαβεῖν με ; 52ὡς ἐπὶ λῃστὴν ἐξήλθατε μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων ;
55καθʼ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ ἐκαθεζόμην διδάσκων καὶ οὐκ ἐκρατήσατέ με. 56τοῦτο δὲ ὅλον γέγονεν ἵνα πληρωθῶσιν αἱ γραφαὶ τῶν προφητῶν. 49καθʼ ἡμέραν ἤμην πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ διδάσκων καὶ οὐκ ἐκρατήσατέ με• ἀλλʼ ἵνα πληρωθῶσιν αἱ γραφαί. 53καθʼ ἡμέραν ὄντος μου μεθʼ ὑμῶν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ οὐκ ἐξετείνατε τὰς χεῖρας ἐπʼ ἐμέ, ἀλλʼ αὕτη ἐστὶν ὑμῶν ὥρα καὶ ἐξουσία τοῦ σκότους. The ending here uses Q language. It is hard to tell if it is only these words or all of verses 52-53 that is from Q.
56Τότε οἱ μαθηταὶ πάντες ἀφέντες αὐτὸν ἔφυγον. 50Καὶ ἀφέντες αὐτὸν ἔφυγον πάντες.
51καὶ νεανίσκος τις συνηκολούθει αὐτῷ περιβεβλημένος σινδόνα ἐπὶ γυμνοῦ, καὶ κρατοῦσιν αὐτόν• 52 δὲ καταλιπὼν τὴν σινδόνα γυμνὸς ἔφυγεν.

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